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A 640 pW 22 pJ/sample Gate Leakage-Based Digital CMOS Temperature Sensor with 0.25°C Resolution

This work presents a 640 pW, 22 pJ/conversion gate leakage-powered temperature sensor with 0.25°C resolution and -2.7/1.8°C worst-case inaccuracy from -20°C to 100°C. Gate leakage currents drive both the sensing and sampling elements to provide compact but reliable operation that balances low power and low energy for flexible application use. This low-power, low-energy performance enables continuous sub-nW temperature sensing for the Internet of Things.